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        印尼不优先给老年人接种新冠疫苗,原因何在?

        印尼不优先给老年人接种新冠疫苗,原因何在?

        Grady McGregor 2021年01月14日
        印尼将接种目标对准劳动年龄人口的决策表明,政府急需重启经济。

        1月11日,印尼的最高药品监管机构批准紧急使用中国制药商科兴生物研发的疫苗,预计本周晚些时候总统佐科?维多多将启动疫苗接种,届时会在全国电视台直播注射。

        在此之前,印尼的最高伊斯兰组织伊斯兰教传教士理事会(Indonesian Ulema Council)于1月8日宣布,已经认定科兴疫苗“神圣且清真”,符合伊斯兰教义,这是赢得世界上最大的穆斯林国家信任的关键一步。

        印尼是亚洲疫情最严重的国家之一,新冠感染病例将近90万例,约2.5万人死亡。目前,印尼正在抗击最为严峻的一波感染。据报道,本周每日新增病例超过1万例,为疫情爆发以来首次单日破万。

        1月13日,印尼启动了大规模的疫苗接种,在未来15个月内将为超过1.8亿人接种疫苗。印尼将跟全球许多国家一样大力推动疫苗接种,争取尽快终结毁灭性的新冠疫情。但是,印尼作为拥有人口数量排名全球第四的国家,疫苗接种工作与其他国家并不一样,原因不仅仅是科兴疫苗获得了“清真”标签。印尼疫苗接种的独特之处在于,不会遵循优先老年人的全球趋势。

        美国疾病控制中心(Centers for Disease Control)表示,疫苗接种的主要目标是“尽可能减少死亡和重症”。因此,该中心建议先给养老院人口和工作人员接种疫苗,因为这个群体极易感染新冠病毒,然后是75岁以上的老人和其他一线工作人员。英国也优先为老年人注射疫苗,尽可能防止死亡。

        截至2020年12月中旬,印尼60岁以上人口的死亡案例占全国死亡人数的40%,而46岁至59岁的人口占36%。但在12月中旬,印尼宣布疫苗计划将优先考虑一线医务工作者和其他重要工作者,将老年人口排在最后。印尼的卫生部部长告诉彭博社(Bloomberg),之所以优先为非老年人群接种,主要因为老年人群接种疫苗的安全数据不足。

        印尼官员表示,年轻人更倾向于社交,所以该战略有助于更快地限制新冠病毒传播。还有一些证据显示,跟老年人相比,年轻人传播新冠病毒的速度更快。专家警告称,先给年轻人接种疫苗可能有助于减缓病毒的传播,但可能无法降低老年群体的新冠死亡人数。

        香港城市大学的卫生治理教授尼古拉斯?托马斯表示,印尼的经济状况可能也是政府采取该策略的动机。

        托马斯说:“印尼将目标对准劳动年龄人口的决策表明,政府急需重启经济。预计今年贫困和粮食不足都将以两位数增长。政府努力尽快复工复产,从而遏制负面趋势。”

        2020年,印尼经济遭逢二十年来首次衰退,二季度和三季度的经济增速分别降低5.3%和3.5%。总体而言,预计2020年经济将萎缩1%至2%。

        印尼当局表示,已经审查了印尼、土耳其和巴西三个国家的三期试验临床数据,于1月11日批准了中国科兴生物公司生产的疫苗。

        上周,巴西有关部门表示,科兴疫苗预防新冠感染的有效性为78%,但没有公开披露相关的支持数据。

        迄今为止,印尼在推行倾向年轻人的疫苗接种策略方面最为坦率,但可能不是唯一如此选择的国家。(财富中文网)

        译者:晓维

        审校:夏林

        1月11日,印尼的最高药品监管机构批准紧急使用中国制药商科兴生物研发的疫苗,预计本周晚些时候总统佐科?维多多将启动疫苗接种,届时会在全国电视台直播注射。

        在此之前,印尼的最高伊斯兰组织伊斯兰教传教士理事会(Indonesian Ulema Council)于1月8日宣布,已经认定科兴疫苗“神圣且清真”,符合伊斯兰教义,这是赢得世界上最大的穆斯林国家信任的关键一步。

        印尼是亚洲疫情最严重的国家之一,新冠感染病例将近90万例,约2.5万人死亡。目前,印尼正在抗击最为严峻的一波感染。据报道,本周每日新增病例超过1万例,为疫情爆发以来首次单日破万。

        1月13日,印尼启动了大规模的疫苗接种,在未来15个月内将为超过1.8亿人接种疫苗。印尼将跟全球许多国家一样大力推动疫苗接种,争取尽快终结毁灭性的新冠疫情。但是,印尼作为拥有人口数量排名全球第四的国家,疫苗接种工作与其他国家并不一样,原因不仅仅是科兴疫苗获得了“清真”标签。印尼疫苗接种的独特之处在于,不会遵循优先老年人的全球趋势。

        美国疾病控制中心(Centers for Disease Control)表示,疫苗接种的主要目标是“尽可能减少死亡和重症”。因此,该中心建议先给养老院人口和工作人员接种疫苗,因为这个群体极易感染新冠病毒,然后是75岁以上的老人和其他一线工作人员。英国也优先为老年人注射疫苗,尽可能防止死亡。

        截至2020年12月中旬,印尼60岁以上人口的死亡案例占全国死亡人数的40%,而46岁至59岁的人口占36%。但在12月中旬,印尼宣布疫苗计划将优先考虑一线医务工作者和其他重要工作者,将老年人口排在最后。印尼的卫生部部长告诉彭博社(Bloomberg),之所以优先为非老年人群接种,主要因为老年人群接种疫苗的安全数据不足。

        印尼官员表示,年轻人更倾向于社交,所以该战略有助于更快地限制新冠病毒传播。还有一些证据显示,跟老年人相比,年轻人传播新冠病毒的速度更快。专家警告称,先给年轻人接种疫苗可能有助于减缓病毒的传播,但可能无法降低老年群体的新冠死亡人数。

        香港城市大学的卫生治理教授尼古拉斯?托马斯表示,印尼的经济状况可能也是政府采取该策略的动机。

        托马斯说:“印尼将目标对准劳动年龄人口的决策表明,政府急需重启经济。预计今年贫困和粮食不足都将以两位数增长。政府努力尽快复工复产,从而遏制负面趋势。”

        2020年,印尼经济遭逢二十年来首次衰退,二季度和三季度的经济增速分别降低5.3%和3.5%。总体而言,预计2020年经济将萎缩1%至2%。

        印尼当局表示,已经审查了印尼、土耳其和巴西三个国家的三期试验临床数据,于1月11日批准了中国科兴生物公司生产的疫苗。

        上周,巴西有关部门表示,科兴疫苗预防新冠感染的有效性为78%,但没有公开披露相关的支持数据。

        迄今为止,印尼在推行倾向年轻人的疫苗接种策略方面最为坦率,但可能不是唯一如此选择的国家。(财富中文网)

        译者:晓维

        审校:夏林

        On January 11, Indonesia’s top drug regulator approved Sinovac’s COVID-19 vaccine for emergency use, and President Joko Widodo is expected to kick-start the country’s vaccination drive later this week by being publicly injected with the vaccine developed by the Chinese drugmaker on national TV.

        The approval followed the January 8 announcement by the Indonesian Ulema Council, the country’s top Islamic body, that it had deemed Sinovac’s vaccine “holy and halal,” or acceptable under Islam, a critical step in earning trust in the world’s largest Muslim nation.

        Indonesia has been one of Asia’s hardest-hit countries in the pandemic, recording nearly 900,000 cases of COVID-19 and nearly 25,000 deaths. Now the country is battling a record wave of COVID-19 infections, reporting over 10,000 new cases per day this week for the first time since the onset of the pandemic.

        In starting its ambitious campaign on January 13 to vaccinate over 180 million people in the next 15 months, Indonesia will join a host of countries across the globe in rolling out jabs that could help end the devastating pandemic. But the vaccination effort of the world’s fourth most populous nation will stand out, not just because the Sinovac doses earned the “halal” label. Indonesia is also unique in that its inoculation campaign will defy the worldwide trend of targeting the elderly first.

        In the U.S., the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) says that one of the main aims of its vaccine rollout is to “decrease death and serious disease as much as possible.” Therefore, the CDC recommends vaccinating nursing home populations and the facilities’ workers first, because these residents are particularly vulnerable to COVID-19, before rolling vaccines out to those ages 75 and older and other frontline workers. The U.K. is also injecting seniors first in an effort to prevent as many deaths as possible.

        In Indonesia, people ages 60 and older account for 40% of the country’s COVID-19 deaths, compared with 36% for those ages 46 to 59, as of mid-December 2020. But in mid-December, Indonesia announced that its vaccine plan would prioritize frontline medical workers and other essential workers and place elderly populations at the end of the line. Indonesia’s health minister told Bloomberg that its vaccine plan would target non-elderly populations first because there wasn’t enough vaccine safety data on elderly populations.

        Indonesian officials say that this strategy will help limit the spread of COVID-19 faster, given that younger populations are more prone to socializing. There is also some evidence that suggests young people spread COVID-19 at a higher rate than their older peers. Experts have cautioned that inoculating younger people first may help slow the spread of the virus, but it might not bring down COVID-19 fatalities among the country’s elderly.

        Nicholas Thomas, professor of health governance at the City University of Hong Kong, says the economy is likely a motive in the strategy too.

        “The decision to target the working-age population is indicative of the Indonesian government’s urgent need to restart its economy,” said Thomas. “National poverty and food insecurity are both expected to jump by double-digits this year. [By] getting the country back to work faster, the government is trying to mitigate these negative trends.”

        In 2020, Indonesia’s economy entered a recession for the first time in two decades, shrinking 5.3% and 3.5%, respectively, in the second and third quarters. Overall, the economy is expected to have shrunk by a projected 1% to 2% in 2020.

        Indonesian authorities said they approved Sinovac’s vaccine on January 11 after reviewing clinical data from Phase III trials in Indonesia, Turkey, and Brazil.

        Last week Brazilian authorities said Sinovac’s vaccine was 78% effective in preventing COVID-19 infections, but didn’t publicly disclose data to back up its claims.

        Indonesia has been the most candid thus far in pursuing a more youth-oriented vaccination strategy, but it may not be the only country to do so.

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