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        虽然美国有两款疫苗上市,但接种进展还是太缓慢

        虽然美国有两款疫苗上市,但接种进展还是太缓慢

        Sy Mukherjee 2021年01月17日
        专家称,究竟能够得到两种疫苗中的哪一种,主要取决于接种者的居住地。

        目前美国市场上有两种新冠疫苗:一种来自辉瑞(Pfizer)及其合作伙伴BioNTech,另一种来自生物技术公司Moderna。二者均在2020年年底获得了美国食品与药品管理局(Food and Drug Administration)的紧急授权。

        新年伊始,新冠疫苗的接种工作进展缓慢。目前有资格接种疫苗的人群包括一线医务工作者和相关后勤保障人员,以及养老院居民等。但根据公共卫生和生命科学专家的说法,究竟能够得到两种疫苗中的哪一种,主要取决于接种者的居住地。

        目前还无法预测疫苗产量增加后的情况,但有理由认为,大城市更有可能获得需要超低温存储的辉瑞疫苗。

        尽管辉瑞和Moderna的疫苗使用了同样的核心科技,而且在临床实验中得出的有效性相似,但二者的生产流程、储存要求和给药方案不同,这意味着合理的分配策略是推进疫苗接种工作的关键。

        “美国的情况比其他许多国家复杂得多。”Fluxergy公司的首席商务官阿里·蒂纳兹利说。这家位于加州的专业诊断机构正在开发一种新冠病毒快速检测系统。

        蒂纳兹利认为,无论是辉瑞、Moderna的新冠疫苗,还是未来有望获得授权的,比如阿斯利康(AstraZeneca)和强生(Johnson & Johnson)的疫苗,在美国进行分配,都要采用分层策略。而在一些较小的国家,可能只需要某一种疫苗即可满足需求。

        美国的疫苗分配策略几乎肯定会依各州、各地区的瓶颈问题,以及所需的剂量不同而变。辉瑞疫苗要求超低温储存,可能会分配给经验丰富的大型医疗机构,比如妙佑医疗国际(Mayo Clinic)。

        根据卫生专家的看法,Moderna的冷藏要求相对常规,可能更易于分发到偏远地区。因此,人们具体可以获得哪种疫苗,大体由居住地所决定。

        上周,Moderna宣布,将其2021年新冠疫苗的生产配额提高20%至6亿剂,这将覆盖全球3亿人口,因为与辉瑞的一样,该疫苗也需要注射两剂。公司称,到今年6月,美国预计能够获得其中的2亿剂。

        截至1月11日,目前在用的两种疫苗总共仅分发了2540万剂,美国只有约900万人实际接种了第一剂疫苗。

        美国疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)于1月7日发布了最新的分配策略指南。该计划中关键的一个环节对技术的要求其实相当低:一张疫苗接种卡或打印凭证,注明疫苗的种类、接种日期和地点,再加上一份电子记录副本。该措施有助于避免辉瑞和Moderna疫苗的混淆。

        不过归根到底,你会得到哪一种,将完全取决于你家的邮编、当地的基础医疗设施,以及可用的总剂量。(财富中文网)

        译者:胡萌琦

        目前美国市场上有两种新冠疫苗:一种来自辉瑞(Pfizer)及其合作伙伴BioNTech,另一种来自生物技术公司Moderna。二者均在2020年年底获得了美国食品与药品管理局(Food and Drug Administration)的紧急授权。

        新年伊始,新冠疫苗的接种工作进展缓慢。目前有资格接种疫苗的人群包括一线医务工作者和相关后勤保障人员,以及养老院居民等。但根据公共卫生和生命科学专家的说法,究竟能够得到两种疫苗中的哪一种,主要取决于接种者的居住地。

        目前还无法预测疫苗产量增加后的情况,但有理由认为,大城市更有可能获得需要超低温存储的辉瑞疫苗。

        尽管辉瑞和Moderna的疫苗使用了同样的核心科技,而且在临床实验中得出的有效性相似,但二者的生产流程、储存要求和给药方案不同,这意味着合理的分配策略是推进疫苗接种工作的关键。

        “美国的情况比其他许多国家复杂得多。”Fluxergy公司的首席商务官阿里·蒂纳兹利说。这家位于加州的专业诊断机构正在开发一种新冠病毒快速检测系统。

        蒂纳兹利认为,无论是辉瑞、Moderna的新冠疫苗,还是未来有望获得授权的,比如阿斯利康(AstraZeneca)和强生(Johnson & Johnson)的疫苗,在美国进行分配,都要采用分层策略。而在一些较小的国家,可能只需要某一种疫苗即可满足需求。

        美国的疫苗分配策略几乎肯定会依各州、各地区的瓶颈问题,以及所需的剂量不同而变。辉瑞疫苗要求超低温储存,可能会分配给经验丰富的大型医疗机构,比如妙佑医疗国际(Mayo Clinic)。

        根据卫生专家的看法,Moderna的冷藏要求相对常规,可能更易于分发到偏远地区。因此,人们具体可以获得哪种疫苗,大体由居住地所决定。

        上周,Moderna宣布,将其2021年新冠疫苗的生产配额提高20%至6亿剂,这将覆盖全球3亿人口,因为与辉瑞的一样,该疫苗也需要注射两剂。公司称,到今年6月,美国预计能够获得其中的2亿剂。

        截至1月11日,目前在用的两种疫苗总共仅分发了2540万剂,美国只有约900万人实际接种了第一剂疫苗。

        美国疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)于1月7日发布了最新的分配策略指南。该计划中关键的一个环节对技术的要求其实相当低:一张疫苗接种卡或打印凭证,注明疫苗的种类、接种日期和地点,再加上一份电子记录副本。该措施有助于避免辉瑞和Moderna疫苗的混淆。

        不过归根到底,你会得到哪一种,将完全取决于你家的邮编、当地的基础医疗设施,以及可用的总剂量。(财富中文网)

        译者:胡萌琦

        There's two vaccines on the market currently: one from Pfizer and partner BioNTech and another from the biotech Moderna. Both received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) emergency authorization at the end of 2020.

        But the New Year has brought with it a slow rollout for those currently eligible to receive their coronavirus shots, such as frontline health care workers, their support staff, and nursing home residents. But for those able to get vaccinated, which one of the two vaccines one might receive will largely boil down to where you live, according to public health and life sciences experts.

        It's still too early to tell how things will shake out once production of these vaccines ramps up, but it's reasonable to assume that bigger cities may have better access to the vaccine that requires colder storage—the vaccine from Pfizer.

        While Pfizer's and Moderna's respective vaccines stem from the same cool science and have shown similar rates of effectiveness in clinical trials, they have different manufacturing processes, storage requirements, and dosing regimens, meaning that a strong distribution strategy is key.

        "It's much more complex in the United States than in many other countries," says Ali Tinazli, the chief commercial officer at Fluxergy, a California-based diagnostics specialist that is developing a rapid response COVID testing system.

        Tinazli believes that any strategy of distributing the Pfizer and Moderna COVID vaccines—and other potential vaccines that will receive authorization in the future such as AstraZeneca's and Johnson & Johnson's—in this country will require a layered approach, whereas in smaller nations there may be deals for one specific vaccine or another to suit their needs.

        The U.S. strategy will almost certainly evolve as states and locales identify various bottlenecks and figure out their individual needs for doses. Pfizer's vaccine, which requires ultracool storage, might be routed to large health systems with more sophisticated abilities such as the Mayo Clinic.

        Moderna's, which comes with more conventional cooling requirements, may be easier to dole out to rural areas, according to health experts. So location will almost certainly dictate which one you receive.

        Last week, Moderna announced that it would boost its 2021 production quota for its COVID shot by 20% to 600 million doses, which would reach 300 million people globally since the product, like Pfizer's, requires two doses. The U.S. is expected to have access to 200 million of those doses by June, according to the company.

        As of Jan. 11, just 25.4 million doses, including both of the vaccines currently being used, had been distributed, and only about 9 million people had actually received the first dose of a vaccine in the U.S.

        The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued updated guidance on the issue on distribution strategies on Jan. 7. A key element of the program is decidedly low-tech: a vaccination card or printout that tells you which vaccine you received and the date and location of the shot's administration, alongside an electronic record copy. That would help prevent mixups between the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines.

        But at the end of the day, which one you receive will boil down to your zip code, local health care infrastructure, and the total number of available doses.

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